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HISTORY TIMELINE (1800-1899) By Gerald Murphy

DATE EVENT ==== ====================================================================== 1800 House elects President Jefferson after electoral college tie with Burr 1800 Spain returns Louisiana to France 1800 Congress establishes Library of Congress 1800 Fillmore, 13th President, born; dies 1874 1801 John Marshall appointed as Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court 1801 Tripolitan War begins; ends in 1805 with USMC on the shores of Tripoli 1802 Treaty of Amiens, in March 1803 Louisiana Purchased April 30. Lewis & Clark to begin exploration 1803 Atomic theory first published 1804 12th Amendment changes Presidential election rules 1804 Osceola born in Tallassee village in Alabama;will lead 2nd Seminole War 1804 Vice President Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in duel July 11 1804 Pierce, 14th President, born; dies 1869 1805 Lewis & Clark discover mouth of Columbia River, just in time, on Nov 7 1807 Robert Fulton, in "Clermont", steams up Hudson River to Albany, Aug 17 1807 Congress outlaws importing slaves from Africa, March 2 1807 Treaty of Detroit; Wyandot Indians lose most of their real estate 1807 Embargo Act, Dec 22, forbids American ships to leave American waters 1808 Andrew Johnson, 17th President, born; dies 1875 1808 Slave importation outlawed. Yet, another 1/4 million brought in by 1860 1809 Abraham Lincoln, 16th President,born in Kentucky February 12; dies 1865 1809 Illinois becomes a separate territory 1809 Non-Intercourse Act, Mar 1, repeals the Embargo Act, which didn't work 1810 Census counts 7,239,881 persons in United States 1811 Madison allows 20-year charter of Bank of the United States to lapse 1811 Wm. H. Harrison fights Indians at Tippecanoe, near Indianapolis, Nov 7 1811 New Madrid, MO earthquake Dec 16; forecast months before by Tecumseh 1812 War declared on England June 18, days after England repealed the cause 1812 Russians build Fort Rossiia (Ross) 90 miles north of San Francisco 1813 Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry "meets" British in Lake Erie Sept 10 1814 City of Washington captured and burned by British, August 24 1814 Francis Scott Key observes flag over Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Sept 14 1814 Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 on December 24, but fighting goes on 1815 Andrew Jackson defeats British at New Orleans Jan 8, after war ends 1815 USS Constitution defeats two British ships off African coast 20 Feb 1815 Napolean meets his "Waterloo" on June 18 1816 Second Bank of the United States chartered, Apr 10 1817 Work begins on Erie Canal 1817 First American school for the deaf, Hartford, CT, Apr 14 1817 Secretary of State Rush and British Minister Bagot agree on Great Lakes 1818 Congress fixes stripes in flag at 13 to honor original colonies, Apr 4 1818 Anglo-American Convention fixes 49th parallel as border with Canada 1818 Illinois becomes the 21st state on December 3 1819 First permanent American settlement of Peoria 1819 SS Savanah makes transatlantic crossing under steam propulsion, a first 1819 Florida ceded by Spain to the United States, Feb 22 1819 Treaty of Saginaw; Indians give up one sixth of Michigan 1820 Missouri Compromise forbids slavery above 36 degrees 30 mins. latitude 1820 Federalist Party dissolves; without opposition, Jefferson Dems disband 1822 Grant, 18th President, born in Ohio; dies 1885 1822 Hayes, 19th President, born in Ohio; dies 1893 1823 Monroe Doctrine given to Congress December 2 1824 House of Representatives elects John Q. Adams president 1825 Erie Canal completed 1826 Jefferson, then Adams, die on 50th anniversary of Declaration, July 4 1827 Ohio Canal opened for business 1828 Noah Webster publishes "American Dictionary of English Language" 1828 Baltimore & Ohio railroad, the first designed for passengers & freight 1829 Arthur, 21st President, born; dies 1886 1829 Estate of James Smithson funds Smithsonian Institution 1831 Abraham Lincoln settles in New Salem, IL, working as a storekeeper, surveyor, and postmaster 1831 Samuel F. Smith writes "My Country, 'tis of Thee" 1831 Nat Turner leads slave revolt at Southhampton 1831 Garfield, 20th President (and 3rd in a row from Ohio), born; dies 1881 1832 A.Lincoln enlists in Illinois militia to help fight Sauk & Fox Indians 1832 Black Hawk War ends era of Indians in Illinois 1832 Jackson vetoes rechartering of 2nd Bank, causes birth of Whig Party 1832 Jackson supporters counter with rebirth of Jefferson Democratic Party 1833 Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President, born; dies 1901 1833 First tax-supported public library, at Peterborough, NH, Apr 9 1834 Abraham Lincoln elected to Illinois State Legislature 1834 Death of Lafayette, Revolutionary War hero on two continents 1834 Charles Babbage demonstrates "analytic engine", a computer 1835 U.S.A. becomes debt free (briefly) for only time in history 1836 Abraham Lincoln becomes a lawyer 1836 The Alamo. 6000 Mexicans defeat 190 Americans in 12 days on March 6 1837 Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President, born; dies 1908 1837 Sitting Bull born, dies in 1890 1837 Concord Hymn, by Emerson, commemorates battle of Concord NH in 1775 1838 Osceola dies in prison after being tricked by false white flag 1838 Trail of Tears. Thousands of Indians forced from their homes & die 1838 Black Hawk, famous Sauk warrior, dies of old age 1839 Abner Doubleday invents baseball at Cooperstown, NY 1839 Railway Express Co. founded in Boston 1840 Chief Joseph born near Wallowa, OR. Becomes great chief of Nez Perce' 1841 Wm. H. Harrison catches cold at Inauguration, dies a month later 1841 Russia sells their Fort Ross in California to John Sutter 1842 Crazy Horse born in South Dakota 1842 Plain Dealer Publishing Co. founded in Cleveland 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty defines Canadian-U.S. frontier, Aug 9 1843 McKinley, 25th President (5th from Ohio), born; dies 1901 1844 Samuel F. B. Morse opens telegraphic link between Baltimore and D.C. 1845 Peoria, Illinois is incorporated as a city 1845 U. S. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD 1845 Texas is annexed; war with Mexico follows 1846 Large crack in Liberty Bell gets too bad to permit ringing any more 1846 Potato famine in Ireland. Many flee to America for survival 1847 Brigham Young leads his followers into Salt Lake City, UT area 1847 Thomas Alva Edison born in Milan, OH February 11; dies in 1931 1847 American troops fight their way into the Halls of Montezuma in Mexico 1848 Treaty of 1848 gets CA, NM, AZ, NV UT, parts of CO & WY for the Union 1848 Cornerstone laid for the Washington Monument 1849 There's G O L D in them thar hills! Invasion of California begins 1849 Eastern Michigan University founded. 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, Sept. 18 1851 Isaac Singer granted a patent for his sewing machine 1853 Gadsden Purchase brings some Mexican territory into U.S.A. 1853 Commodore Matthew Perry opens trade routes with Japan, July 14 1854 Kansas - Nebraska Act. Provides springboard for Abe Lincoln 1854 Republican Party formed in Ripon, WI 28 February, under John Fremont 1854 George Boole writes on theories of logic and probabilities 1855 Soo Canal opens upper Great Lakes to commercial navigation 1855 Longfellow uses name of real Six Nation's hero Hiawatha in myth. poem 1856 Abraham Lincoln joins the New Republican Party 1856 Wilson, 28th President, born; dies 1924 1856 Western Union Telegraph Co. established in Cleveland 1856 Cocaine extracted from cocoa leaves, but has no legitimate use. 1857 Dred Scott decision handed down by Supreme Court, March 6 1857 Transatlantic cable begins; used briefly in 1858. Replaced in 1866 1857 Taft, 27th President (7th from Ohio), born; dies 1930 1858 Abe Lincoln runs for the senate against Stephen A. Douglas and loses 1858 Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President, born; dies 1919 1859 Abolitionist John Brown leads assault on armory at Harper's Ferry 1859 Colonel Robert E. Lee, U. S. Army, commands troops at Harpers Ferry 1859 Drake puts down first oil well in U.S.A., Titusville, PA 1860 Lincoln elected President with a minority of popular vote 1860 Annie Oakley born in Darke County, Ohio, log cabin, August 13 1860 Pony Express riders leave Sacramento, CA and St. Joseph, MO - 1st ride 1860 South Carolina becomes first state to secede from Union, December 20 1861 Confederate States adopt Provisional Constitution, February 8 1861 Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC, April 12 1861 Ohioan Generals Grant, Sherman and Sheridan ride off to war 1861 Congress enacts first income tax August 2, on incomes more than $800 1861 U. S. Navy's first aircraft carrier launches hot air balloon Aug 3 1861 First Congressional Medals of Honor awarded, to Union Navymen 1861 First transcontinental telegraph kills need for Pony Express 1862 The Homestead Act, May 20, contributes to development in ND, SD, & OK 1862 Duel between Merrimac and Monitor March 8; CSS Merrimac withdrew 1862 Battle of Shiloh, Apr 6 1863 The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 The Gettysburg Address dedicated to more than two score thousand dead 1864 Lincoln posed for photograph which appears on $5 bill, Feb 9 1864 "In God We Trust" put on American coins for the first time April 22 1864 Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians at Sand Creek, CO, Nov 29 1864 Lincoln proclaims last Thursday in November to be Thanksgiving Day 1865 13th amendment abolishes slavery 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox on Palm Sunday, April 9 1865 Lincoln shot by Boothe April 14, at Ford's Theater. Dies next day and is buried in Illinois 1865 Confederate Army surrenders at Shreveport, LA; Civil War ends May 26 1865 Last shot of Civil War fired by CSS Shenandoah in Bering Sea, June 22 1865 Harding, 29th President (8th from Ohio), born; dies in 1923 1866 Ohio briefly adopts state motto: "Imperium in Imperio" 1866 Congress recognizes the Metric system of measurements 1866 Alfred Nobel invents something that is "dynamite" 1866 ASPCA organized, Apr 10 1866 First roller rink in the world opens at Newport, RI 1867 University of Illinois founded 1867 British North American Act creates the Dominion of Canada 1867 US buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million 1868 14th amendment prohibits voting discrimination, among other things 1868 House impeaches President Johnson. Senate acquits him by one vote 1869 Transcontinental railroad completed; Ogden, UT wins the golden spike 1869 Suez Canal completed 1870 "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea", in a nuclear submarine 1870 15th Amendment gives blacks the right to vote 1870 John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, in Cleveland, OH 1870 Robert E. Lee dies, October 12 1871 Dr. B. F. Goodrich opens rubber factory in Akron, OH 1871 Mrs. O'Leary's cow blamed for Chicago fire, Oct 8-11 1872 Coolidge, 30th President, born; dies 1933 1872 Susan B. Anthony leads protest for women at polling place 1872 Yellowstone National Park created; our first of many 1873 Bellevue Hospital in NYC starts first school of nursing 1874 Hoover, 31st President, born; dies 1964 1874 Guglielmo Marconi, radio pioneer, born April 25 1875 Gold discovered in the Sioux holy grounds, the Black Hills of SD 1875 First running of the Kentucky Derby at Churchhill Downs, May 17 1876 Custer makes his way into the history books at Little Big Horn in MT 1876 Liberty statue presented by France, construction requires ten years 1876 Internal combustion engine invented by N. A. Otto (pronounced "auto") 1876 Does the name "Alexander Graham" ring a Bell? Telephone invented 1877 Crazy Horse dies in a Nebraska prison from stab wounds 1878 Carl Sandburg, major American poet, born in Galesburg, IL, dies 1967 1878 First electric street lighting anywhere is on Cleveland Public Square 1878 First commercial telephone exchange is at New Haven, CT, Jan 28 1879 John D. Rockefeller organizes the Standard Oil Trust 1879 Charles McGill is last felon publicly hanged on Cleveland Public Squ. 1880 Case School of Applied Science established in Cleveland 1881 Booker T. Washington opens Tuskegee Institute for blacks 1881 Garfield assassinated. Arthur moves into the presidency 1882 F. D. Roosevelt, 32nd President, born; dies 1945 1883 Indonesian volcano Krakatau blows it's top; 35,000 die 1883 Brooklyn Bridge completed May 24. No, it is not for sale! 1884 Truman, 33rd President, born; dies 1972 1884 First "World Series" played 1886 Geronimo surrenders all Apache nations, September 4 1887 Susan Salter, Argonia, KS, is first woman mayor in U.S.A., Apr 4 1888 Electric streetcars introduced, in Richmond, VA 1889 Indian Territory becomes Oklahoma Territory, thrown open to landrush 1889 First American skyscraper soars into Chicago skies, 10 stories 1889 Jefferson Davis dies at age 81 on December 6 1890 Eisenhower, 34th President, born; dies 1969 1890 First skyscraper in New York City is the World Building, 26 stories 1890 Massacre at Wounded Knee, SD, December 29 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act, July 2 1890 Leonidas Merritt discovers iron ore lode at Mesabi, MN 1892 First bridge to span the lower Mississippi river is at Memphis 1892 Rudolf Diesel invents internal combustion engine that runs on oil 1892 Pledge of Allegiance published. Changes made in 1954 1893 "America the Beautiful" written by Katherine Lee Bates 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson establishes hated "separate but equal" provision 1897 Bradley University is founded in Peoria, Illinois 1898 USS Maine blown up in harbor at Havana, Cuba, February 15 1898 Spanish - American War. Teddy Roosevelt rough-rides his way into Cuba 1898 Independent republic of Hawaii annexed

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